Mitochondrial Fission with Function Impairment in Burn Serum Treated C2C12 Cells
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BACKGROUND: Burn patients suffer muscle mass loss associated with a hypercatabolic status. Mitochondria dynamics cycle is affected by metabolic status, and mitochondrial fission mediated high glucose induced cell death. Mitochondria function impairment associated with muscle mass loss has been observed in severe burn patients. We hypothesize that severe burn impaired muscle mass loss is associated with increased mitochondria fission with function impairment. The study was to investigate mitochondrial dynamics in response to burn serum stimulation. METHODS: Murine myoblast C2C12 cells were treated with DMEM media containing 10% rat serum isolated either from 40% TBSA scald burn rats, or control rats. Mitochondria was labeled with 3nM of MitoTracker Green FM dye, and live cell images were taken sequentially under a Nikon Ti Eclipse Confocal microscope. Cell lysates were collected for molecular biological analysis. Mitochondrial function was evaluated with Enzo Mito-ID membrane potential cytotoxicity kit. Target protein signals from cell lysate were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Mitochondrial morphology maintained the elongated linear shape in C2C12 cells when treated with 10% control rat serum. In contrast, when cells were treated with 10% burn serum, mitochondria reduced the elongated linear shape at 24 to 48 hours, and the florescent dye diffused at 72 hours. The cell florescent images showed an increase in circularity and fragmentation of mitochondria in C2C12 cells with burn serum stimulation. Meanwhile mitochondrial membrane potential decreased with 6hr post-burn serum stimulation. Western blot data showed that mitofusion-1 (Mfn1) significantly decreased in C2C12 cells with burn serum stimulation, confirming the observation of mitochondrial fission in response to burn serum. Cell death marker caspase 3 increased its expression in C2C12 cells with burn serum stimulation, suggesting a superfluous cell death in skeletal muscle after burn. CONCLUSION: Our results show an increase in the mitochondria fission/fusion ratio in C2C12 cells stimulated with burn serum isolated 6 hours after burn. The mechanism of mitochondrial fission with function impairment leading to muscle death is under investigation.