A Comparison of Post-Injury Symptomatology and Recovery Following Concussion Versus Orthopedic Injury

dc.contributor.advisorCullum, C. Munroen
dc.contributor.committeeMemberDidehbani, Nyazen
dc.contributor.committeeMemberHynan, Linda S.en
dc.contributor.committeeMemberSilver, Cheryl H.en
dc.contributor.committeeMemberMiller, Shaneen
dc.creatorAllen, Tahnae Tarkentonen
dc.date.issuedAugust 2021
dc.date.submittedAugust 2021
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVE: Concussion research has utilized orthopedic injury (OI) comparison groups to examine outcomes specific to concussion versus physical injury in general, due to the suggestion that preexisting, comorbid, and other injury-related factors influence post-concussion symptom reporting and recovery. The first aim of this dissertation (Study 1) was to conduct a review of the literature on post-injury symptoms and outcomes following concussion versus OI in children and adolescents, focusing on study design and synthesizing conclusions about concussion versus OI in youth populations. Incorporating findings from the review, the second objective of this dissertation (Study 2) was to collect original data from concussed youth and a carefully selected OI control group to compare symptomatology and recovery at initial presentation and 3-months post-injury to examine whether concussion outcomes are unique to a brain injury or more related to response to injury in general. METHODS: A scoping review using MEDLINE and PubMed to query databases from 2000 to 2020 was performed. Studies were included if they reported children, adolescents, or young adults with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion, used an orthopedic control group, and compared post-injury outcomes, which resulted in a total of 52 articles out of the 526 initially identified. For the second study, participants age 12-18 who sustained a concussion (n = 50) were matched by sex, age, and days since injury to an OI group (n = 50). Repeated measure analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to compare post-concussion symptoms, emotional symptoms, and recovery outcomes between injury groups at initial and 3 months post-injury. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of prolonged recovery separately in concussion and OI groups. RESULTS: Study 1: sixty-nine percent of the studies included in the scoping review reported differences between concussion and OI outcomes during at least one assessment time point during the recovery period, with higher and more persistent symptomatology in the concussion group. Study 2: the repeated measure ANCOVAs indicated that concussion participants reported significantly higher post-injury symptomatology and psychological sequelae within the first week of injury compared to OI subjects, but by 3 months, the groups showed no differences. Within the concussion group, females reported significantly higher symptoms compared to males, but this pattern was not observed in the OI group. Significant predictors for prolonged recovery also differed between injury groups. For the concussion group, previous concussion was the only significant predictor in our model for prolonged recovery. In the OI group, time since injury and functional impairment rating scores predicted prolonged recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings suggest concussion results in a unique expression of symptoms, and recovery following concussion is influenced by a specific set of concussion-related factors that are not commonly seen in OI. Clinically, a unique presentation and recovery course following concussion versus OI supports the utility of specialized concussion treatment and clinical protocols, and may help identify individuals at greater risk of prolonged recovery.en
dc.subjectAthletic Injuriesen
dc.subjectBrain Concussionen
dc.subjectRecovery of Functionen
dc.titleA Comparison of Post-Injury Symptomatology and Recovery Following Concussion Versus Orthopedic Injuryen
thesis.degree.departmentGraduate School of Biomedical Sciencesen
thesis.degree.disciplineClinical Psychologyen
thesis.degree.grantorUT Southwestern Medical Centeren
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen


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