Delivery Continuity and Neonatal Disposition to Birthing Parent in Individuals with Substance Use Disorder at Parkland Health



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OBJECTIVE: Infants born to individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) are at increased risk of removal from their parent. Individuals with SUD in pregnancy receive obstetric care by a multidisciplinary care team (MCT) at our safety-net hospital. We evaluated factors associated with delivery continuity and neonatal discharge to birthing parent among patients with SUD. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of pregnant patients with SUD who accessed Parkland Health (PHHS) between July 28, 2021 and June 25, 2022. We compared MCT interactions among patients who did and did not deliver at PHHS as well as neonatal disposition and outcomes for infants born to individuals with SUD and with specifically opioid use disorder (OUD). RESULTS: Among 256 pregnant individuals with SUD who accessed care in our system, 144 (56%) received care by our MCT during pregnancy or at the delivery hospitalization. 98 of these patients delivered at PHHS and 46 delivered elsewhere (68% vs 32%, p<0.001). Significantly more eligible individuals who delivered at PHHS accepted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) compared to those who did not (88% vs 70%, p=0.025). Of 139 patients with SUD who delivered at PHHS, 91 (65%) infants were discharged home with the birthing parent. Parents who went home with their infants were more likely to use cannabis (33% vs 4%, p<0.001) and less likely to use opioids (34% vs 63%, p=0.003). They attended more prenatal visits (median [IQR] 9 [5,11] vs 1 [0,4], p<0.001) and met less frequently with our multidisciplinary team providing integrated SUD treatment (1 [0,10] vs 4 [1, 14.5], p=0.026). Neonates discharged with the birthing parent were less likely to have a positive meconium (7% vs 75%, p<0.001) or urine toxicology (2% vs 67%, p<0.001) and were less likely to have a 5-minute Apgar <4 (0% vs 4%, p=0.04). Of 62 patients with OUD, 31 (50%) were discharged with their neonate. Those who used opioids alone were more likely than individuals with opioid-polysubstance misuse to retain charge of their infant (78% vs 43%, p=0.018). CONCLUSION: Increased interactions and MAT with a team specializing in care of pregnant patients with SUD is associated with delivery continuity. Neonatal disposition and outcomes are influenced more by maternal drug of choice and prenatal care attendance than by MCT interactions because of variance in SUD complexity. Opioid-polysubstance misuse is associated with separation of maternal infant dyad.

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The 62nd Annual Medical Student Research Forum at UT Southwestern Medical Center (Tuesday, January 30, 2024, 3-6 p.m., D1.700 Lecture Hall)

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Afsari, M., White, A., Morillos, S., Fisher, A., McNeil, J., Faucher, M. A., Cordova, P., Onisko, N., Andino, A., Kern, J., Kleinschmidt, K., McIntire, D. D., & Adhikari, E. H. (2024, January 30). Delivery continuity and neonatal disposition to birthing parent in individuals with substance use disorder [Poster session]. 62nd Annual Medical Student Research Forum, Dallas, Texas.

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