Systems Biology of Staphylococcus Aureus Infection Ex Vivo and in Vitro

dc.contributor.advisorRamilo, Octavioen
dc.creatorBanchereau, Romainen
dc.description.abstractStaphylococcus aureus has emerged as one of the most common community-acquired bacterial infections, with significant morbidity and mortality. Emergence of multidrug resistant strains worldwide, combined with limited treatment options demand novel approaches to further elucidate host-pathogen interactions, and especially host responses to infection. To this end, we leveraged systems biology approaches to better characterize the status of the host immune system during S. aureus infection ex vivo and in vitro. The transcriptional profiles of PBMC and whole blood from patients with community-acquired S. aureus infection were characterized by microarray analysis, and leukocyte population frequencies were measured by polychromatic flow cytometry. To refine our understanding of inflammatory networks involved, an in vitro system of antigen-presenting cell stimulation with various pathogens, including S. aureus as well as other bacteria and viruses, and their components, was used to identify early inflammatory programs induced in innate immune cells. To reduce the dimension and complexity of the data generated, we developed modular frameworks to analyze and interpret the fingerprints obtained from both the ex vivo and in vitro studies. // Overall, the blood transcriptional response to S. aureus infection was characterized by over-expression of innate immunity and hematopoiesis transcriptional programs, and under-expression of adaptive immunity programs. Flow cytometry and standard cell blood count (CBC) revealed an increase in absolute numbers of circulating monocytes, neutrophils and antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells and B cells, combined with a decrease in central memory T cells. To identify transcriptional correlates of clinical heterogeneity, we obtained individual fingerprints and derived the molecular distance to health, a numerical score of transcriptional perturbation for each patient. Patient-by-patient analysis without a priori knowledge of clinical diagnoses identified four major transcriptional clusters based on inflammation, erythropoiesis and interferon-induced profiles. Clinical presentation, bacterial dissemination and time between hospitalization and blood sampling were identified as major factors influencing the signature. The framework obtained from in vitro stimulation of monocyte-derived DC helped us refine the characterization of inflammatory programs activated during S. aureus infection. In addition to inflammatory antibacterial programs, S. aureus induced a subset of interferon response modules, also observed in viral infections and autoimmunity, as well as a specific set of modules linked to cell compartmentalization and lipid biosynthesis. Systems biology approaches provide a global and comprehensive assessment of host responses to acute bacterial infections, bringing a new understanding of disease pathogenesis and underlying patient heterogeneity.en
dc.subjectStaphylococcus aureusen
dc.subjectImmunity, Innateen
dc.subjectCommunity-Acquired Infectionsen
dc.titleSystems Biology of Staphylococcus Aureus Infection Ex Vivo and in Vitroen
dc.type.materialTexten School of Biomedical Sciencesen Southwestern Medical Centeren of Philosophyen